Chile is a biogeographic island, confined to the west by the Pacific Ocean, to the east by the Andes and in the north by the Atacama Desert. Furthermore, the Juan Fernández Archipelego and the Desventurados Islands, together with Easter Island, have remote oceanic locations. As a result, the flora has developed very high levels of endemism comprising 2132 species in 467 genera and 134 families. At 46% this is the second highest percentage for any South American country – the graph below illustrates the comparison. The highest levels of endemism are in central Chile especially in the Regions of Atacama, Coquimbo and Valparaíso where the isolation effect is at its greatest. High rates of endemism are influenced by isolated or discontinuous habitats. This includes coastal mountain peaks of La Campana and coastal fog belt of Paposo. The Chilean flora comprises 83 Endemic genera and the endemic family Gomortegaceae (Gomortega keule). Most endemic plant species are at high risk, mainly due to small population ranges especially when they occur on islands. Seven species are recorded as being extinct, five of these once occurred on the Juan Fernández Islands including the once widespread Santalum fernandezianum and two on Easter Island including Sophora toromiro.
About this resource
The website gives an overview of all known species endemic to Chile including the oceanic islands. We are guided by peer-reviewed, current taxonomic treatments and checklists. For example, the Cactaceae follows Walter & Guerrero (2022) Phytotaxa 550 (2): 79–98, and for the Cyperaceae we have followed Govaerts (2018) World Checklist of Selected Plants. Data has also been taken from Rodríguez et al (2018), Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Chile, Gayana Bot. 75(1). The distribution maps are not intended to include every known location but aim to indicate the range for a given species. Distribution maps have been omitted for threatened species such as members of the Cactaceae and Orchidaceae which have small populations and are especially at risk of exploitation.